A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or traditions, often marked as a local or national holiday, mela or eid. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource that many festivals are associated with harvest time. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere and Easter in the southern.
Festivals often serve to fulfill specific communal purposes, especially in regard to commemoration or thanksgiving. The celebrations offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups, contributing to group cohesiveness. They may also provide entertainment, which was particularly important to local communities before the advent of mass-produced entertainment. Festivals that focus on cultural or ethnic topics also seek to inform community members of their traditions; the involvement of elders sharing stories and experience provides a means for unity among families.
It is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service (basic or premium) in the United States, having been in operation since November 8, 1972. In 2014, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.79 billion, compared to the US$1.68 billion it accrued in 2013.
As of July 2015, HBO's programming is available to approximately 36,483,000 households with at least one television set (31.3% of all cable, satellite and telco customers) in the United States (36,013,000 subscribers or 30.9% of all households with pay television service receive at least HBO's primary channel), making it the second largest premium channel in the United States (Encore's programming reaches 40.54 million pay television households as of July 2015). In addition to its U.S. subscriber base, HBO broadcasts in at least 151 countries, covering approximately 122 million subscribers worldwide.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (/ˈvɑːɡnər/; German:[ˈʁiçaʁt ˈvaːɡnɐ]; 22 May 1813–13 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Weber and Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk ("total work of art"), by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama, and which was announced in a series of essays between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).
His compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration, and the elaborate use of leitmotifs—musical phrases associated with individual characters, places, ideas or plot elements. His advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and quickly shifting tonal centres, greatly influenced the development of classical music. His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music.
The seventh UK series of The X Factor was broadcast on ITV between 21 August and 12 December 2010. The final 12 were declared on 3 October 2010. Four wildcards were announced on the first live show of the finals on 9 October 2010, bringing the number of finalists up to 16.
The Boys category was mentored by Dannii Minogue. Contestants in this category are males aged 16 to 28. The eight candidates were Karl Brown, Matt Cardle, Nicolò Festa, Aiden Grimshaw, Marlon McKenzie, Tom Richards, Paije Richardson and John Wilding. Minogue chose:
Matt Cardle (born 15 April 1983) is a former painter and decorator from Little Maplestead, Essex. Born to parents David and Jennifer Cardle, he was diagnosed with Wilms' tumour, a form of cancer when he was a toddler. He recovered after one of his kidneys was removed at age 2. Before applying to The X Factor, he was the frontman and acoustic guitar player of the band Seven Summers alongside Alex Baker (drums), Jon Holland (bass) and Neillo (guitars). The band had alternative rock, pop, urban, and folk influences and released a debut album on 22 January 2010 with their debut single being "Picture of You".